Balancing the Mission Checkbook
Where for-profit and nonprofit meet
The State of Vermont recently adopted legislation creating a new type of entity, a Low-profit Limited Liability Corporation. The L3C, as it is called, is sort of a hybrid of for-profit and nonprofit created as a way to attract both private and philanthropic capital to build businesses with a social benefit. The leading advocate for this new structure has been Americans for Community Development and the Mannweiler Foundation.
The idea behind this hybrid, from an excellent overview of the L3C written by Americans for Community Development, is to “access the vast pools of market driven wealth to make socially responsible investments in so called nonprofit areas.”
From what I understand, the L3C is formed as a Limited Liability Corporation, a well established and flexible business form. The members, or shareholders, of an LLC are entitled to receive a profit or return on their investment. The nonprofit-like aspect comes in the “low-profit” name. The Vermont legislation requires that the L3C must also meet these requirements:
- “Significantly furthers the accomplishment of one or more charitable or educational purposes”
- “No significant purpose of the company is the production of income or the appreciation of property”
- “No purpose of the company is to accomplish one or more political or legislative purposes”
- The name of the company “shall contain the abbreviation L3C or l3c”
This language was carefully developed to qualify these new entities to receive investments from foundations through Program Related Investments. I’ve written before about PRIs as an interesting and unique source of capital funds for nonprofits.
“The key insight of the L3C is that it is not a two-part world but a three part world and that many worthy causes are capable of being self sufficient; they simply do not offer enough of a return in order to attract for profit investors – particularly at their inception,” (Americans for Community Development). So the idea is to create businesses that can attract some private capital, bolster that with more patient philanthropic or socially motivated investment, and result in value to the community (jobs, housing, local revitalization) and a below-market return to investors. This structure is not a fit for every nonprofit, or even for every social enterprise. The L3C is all about raising capital, and when the need for capital is significant, this is worth considering. While the legal form currently exists only in Vermont, several other states are considering adopting the enabling legislation. Meanwhile, an L3C formed in Vermont can operate in any state.
For more information about the forces that are driving the demand for an alternative structure, and some arguments that a new form are unnecessary, The Aspen Institute published a report last year by Thomas Billitteri, Mixing Mission and Business: Does Social Enterprise Need a New Legal Approach?